Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Incompatible legislation and Human Rights in the UK Introduction Incompatible legislation and Human Rights in the UK IntroductionBibliography:Related Introduction First of all, much debate in the United Kingdom amongst commentators and some judges in relation to the human rights are currently being generated. The amalgamation of the European convention on human rights was introduced by Tony Blair (prime minister of the United Kingdom from the 2nd of May to the 27th June 2007) who led the government in 1998, and more importantly it was known as Human Right Act 1998. TheÃ EuropeanCourtofHumanRightsinÃ Strasbourg is aÃ nationalÃ court, formed by theÃ European Convention on Human Rights, which provides legal remedy of final alternative for persons who feel that theirÃ human rightsÃ have been desecrated by a contracting party to the Convention. In addition, I would like to state that it is against the law for public authorities to act contrary to the convention rights. Parliamentary Sovereignty which has however been elemental to the constitution of England and Wales since the 17th century had an important role when it came to the realization of the incorporation of the European Court of Human Right (ECHR) into the United Kingdom law but the convention rights come into force through an Act of Parliament. Second of all, The Human Right Act section 6 also states that public authorities including courts must take actions attuned with definite Convention Rights as enforced in the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). Meanwhile, the Human Rights Act empowers the judiciary courts to interpret both delegated and primary legislations which is very well incompatible with the Convention Rights. Incompatibility under section 4 of the European Court of Human Right only comes in place when the domestic legislation is in conflict with the ECHR, interestingly it does not affect the validity of the legislation and the right to legislate contrary to the human rights are kept because no one can override any law at all which is made by the parliament, for an incompatible legislation to be set aside and stop to exist some amendments have to e made by the parliament. Incompatible legislation will have to go through the parliament for amendment and scrutiny. There would have been a massive entrenchment on the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ individual human rights because protective mechanism would not have taken place within this period as was in the case of GC C v Commissioner of Police for Metropolis. This is an arbitrary policy which fails to permit consideration of personal factors and it as well permits imprecise custody of samples received in state of affairs where neither of the claimants have been accused of any offence or convicted of any offence. Although section 54 of the Police and Criminal Justice Act 2001 Section 82, which was amended states that fingerprints and DNA samples can be retained and used for the purposes related to the prevention and detention of crime investigating offences or conducting persecutions. Furthermore, Public authorities have a defence if legislation requires them to act the way they did in section 6(2), this was shown in the GC C v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis  EWHC 2225, through the policy which the Chief Constable of police officers adopted, in cognizance to retain biometric samples, DNA and fingerprints for an unlimited period like was explained above, and it infringes individual rights. Lastly, the introduction of the Human Rights Act is a development which is very well welcome because of its protection of individual convention rights. European Court of Human Right laws are not merged automatically into the United KingdomsÃ¢â¬â¢ law simply because the United Kingdom is a dualist state unlike many continental European countries, which are monist. In dualist states a treaty ratified by the Government does not change the laws of the state except and until it is incorporated into national law by legislation. Until incorporating legislation is put to force, the national courts have no authority to put into effect treaty rights and obligations both on behalf of the Government or a private human being. Parties agree to secure these rights and freedoms to everyone within their jurisdiction. The Convention also establishes international enforcement machinery. To ensure the observance of the activities undertaken by the Parties, the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg has been set up; itÃ dealsÃ with individual and inter-State petitions. At the demand of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Court may also give advisory opinions with reference to or pertaining the interpretation of the Conventions and the protocols thereto. Under the European Communities Act 1972 (ECA) Parliament willingly gave effect to the United KingdomsÃ¢â¬â¢ obligations and duties under the previous Community and now European Union Treaties in national law. The European Community Act (ECA) defines the legitimately certified or legal relationship amid the two if not separate spheres of law, and exclusive of it European Union law could not become part of national law. Most of the Contracting Parties to the European Convention on Human Rights have included the Convention into their own national legal orders, either through constitutional provision, statute or judicial decision. Coupled with the access of force of Protocol No. 11, has radically improved the status of Convention rights, and the impact of the case law of European Court of Human Rights. In conclusion, the laws cannot be changed because of GC C v Commissioner of Police for Metropolis because a law made is a law to be kept and followed. It cannot be made flexible or easily amended at any given time because if it did there would not be any respect for the law and that would make the law be easily influenced which is not good for a country or state. Human Rights in the United Kingdom are not being fully protected but despite that fact the court has however being able to protect individual rights just like in the case of Ã R v The Head Teacher and Governors of Denbigh High School Ã UKHL 15, where the Court of Appeal and the House of LordsÃ was In favour with shabina Begum. Bibliography: Le Sueur, A., Sunkin, M., Murkens, J.E.K., Ã¢â¬ËPublic Law: Text, Cases and MaterialsÃ¢â¬â¢, (Oxford University Press: New York 2010) Le Sueur, A. Sunkin, M., Ã¢â¬ËPublic LawÃ¢â¬â¢, (Addison Wesley Longman Limited: New York, 1997)
Sunday, March 1, 2020
CÃ ³mo ser exitoso pidiendo extensiÃ ³n de visa de turista Los turistas extranjeros que se encuentran en Estados Unidos con una visa B1 o la combinada B1/B2 pueden solicitar una extensiÃ ³n de su estadÃ a, si desean permanecer en el paÃ s por ms tiempo. QuiÃ ©nes no pueden extender la visa de turista No todos los turistas pueden solicitar quedarse ms tiempo del que inicialmente les ha sido concedido.Ã Hay que tener en cuenta algunas situaciones especiales. En primer lugar, los mexicanos que ingresan a Estados Unidos con una visa de cruce BCC, tambiÃ ©n conocida como lser, deben respetar reglas especiales de tiempo y tambiÃ ©n de millas que se pueden adentrar ms all de la lÃ nea de la frontera. Si sus planes son distintos, deben realizar previamente los trmites correspondientes. Por otro lado, los canadienses y los ciudadanos de Bermudas pueden ingresar a Estados Unidos como turistas sin visa por un mximo de 180 dÃ as. Pueden salir y regresar al poco tiempo, si bien en este caso se arriesgan a que el oficial fronterizo de la CBP consideren que estn en realidad viviendo en Estados Unidos y les niegue el ingreso al paÃ s. Los canadienses no deben confundir este plazo migratorio de 6 mesesÃ con el de impuestos de 120 dÃ as, es decir, 4 meses. Son cosas distintas que a veces se confunden. Por Ã ºltimo, los ciudadanos de los paÃ ses incluidos en el programa de ExenciÃ ³n de Visa pueden ingresar a Estados Unidos como turistas por un mximo de 90 dÃ as y no es posible en ningÃ ºn caso extender esta estadÃ a. Imposible. Tener en cuenta que si llegan por aviÃ ³n en una lÃ nea aÃ ©rea- es decir, no en una nave privada- se necesita solicitar una autorizaciÃ ³n electrÃ ³nica que se conoce como ESTA.Ã Esta autorizaciÃ ³n no es una visa, por lo tanto es imposible extender lo que no se tiene. Todos los dems turistas, es decir, lo que ingresan con la visa B-2, que la mayorÃ a de las veces se emite conjuntamente con la B-1, que es la que se utiliza para negocios, pueden solicitar la extensiÃ ³n. Pero para ser exitoso es conveniente seguir los siguientes consejos.Ã Cundo se puede solicitar la extensiÃ ³n de la visa de turista Lo primero que hay que tener claro es cundo se puede permanecer legalmente en los Estados Unidos. Para ello, la informaciÃ ³n la brinda el documento que se conoce como I-94. No cometer el error de considerar que la fecha que hay que mirar es la de expiraciÃ ³n de la visa.Ã Son dos cosas completamente distintas. A continuaciÃ ³n, tener en cuenta que no se debe pedir la extensiÃ ³n muy pronto. Es decir, se aconseja llevar ya unos tres meses ya en los Estados Unidos. La razÃ ³n para dejar transcurrir ese tiempo es para evitar que las autoridades migratorias consideren que esa fue siempre la intenciÃ ³n y que por lo tanto no se fue claro al ingresar al paÃ s. Si se da esa impresiÃ ³n lo ms probable que suceda es que se niegue la peticiÃ ³n de extensiÃ ³n. Por otro lado, tampoco se puede enviar muy tarde la solicitud de la extensiÃ ³n. Se considera que lo prudente es enviarla 45 dÃ as antes de que llegue el dÃ a mximo de estancia autorizada en los Estados Unidos. Por ejemplo, si segÃ ºn el I-94 la estancia autorizada finaliza el 30 de septiembre, enviar la solicitud el 16 de agosto o unos cuantos dÃ as antes. CÃ ³mo se pide extender la visa de turista o paseo Antes de comenzar, verificar la fecha de expiraciÃ ³n del pasaporte. Debe ser vlido en el momento en que se solicita la extensiÃ ³n y asegurarse de que lo seguir siendo durante el tiempo para el cual se solicita la extensiÃ ³n de la estadÃ a. Si se cumple ese requisito, proceder a continuaciÃ ³n a rellenar el formulario I-539.Ã Ã El nombre oficial es Application to extend/change nonimmigrant status y es que tambiÃ ©n se utiliza para otras solicitudes. Por lo que es importante marcar y llenar sÃ ³lo las casillas que apliquen al caso. DocumentaciÃ ³n adicional Junto con la forma I-539 debe enviarse elÃ registro de entrada/salida I-94. Los extranjeros que ingresaron a los Estados Unidos despuÃ ©s del 30 de abril de 2013 por aeropuerto o puerto tienen una versiÃ ³n digital de este documento. Se puede obtener una copia en la pgina oficial de la CBP. En los casos de ingreso por frontera terrestre en los que se tiene un I-94 de papel o casos especiales de ingresos por aeropuerto o puerto y se ha extraviado, llenar en su lugar el formulario que se conoce como I-102 para obtener asÃ una copia. Adems, se debe explicar en una carta en inglÃ ©s y en detalle las razones para pedir la extensiÃ ³n de la visa. Por quÃ © la estancia en EEUU continÃ ºa siendo temporal, cundo y cÃ ³mo se planea salir del paÃ s y tambiÃ ©n quÃ © posibles efectos puede tener en el empleo que se tenga en el paÃ s de origen alargar la estancia en los Estados Unidos. En el caso de que varios miembros de una misma familia se encuentren visitando Estados Unidos, es suficiente rellenar una sola aplicaciÃ ³n para solicitar la extensiÃ ³n de la visa, siempre y cuando la unidad familiar estÃ © conformada por los padres- o uno de ellos- eÃ hijos solterosÃ menores de 21 aÃ ±os. En cuanto al tiempo el que se pide la extensiÃ ³n, queda a elecciÃ ³n del turista siempre y cuando sea por un tiempo inferior a los 180 dÃ as. Es conveniente ser razonable en este punto y pedir una ampliaciÃ ³n que no resulte sospechosa y dÃ © lugar a que se pueda pensar que se est viviendo en el paÃ s, o se est trabajando, etc. Si se incluye documentaciÃ ³n en un idioma distinto al inglÃ ©s, debe traducirse y certificarse la traducciÃ ³n siguiendo este modelo de carta. Arancel o cuota que pagar para extender la visa de turista En la actualidad deben abonarse $290 por este servicio. Para asegurarse de la cantidad, ya que puede cambiar en cualquier momento, se puede verificar en la pgina oficial del USCIS y buscar por el nombre del formulario, es decir, I-539 y aÃ ±adir la palabra arancel en inglÃ ©s, es decir, fee. TambiÃ ©n es posible marcar gratis al Servicio al Cliente del USCIS marcando gratuitamente al 1-800-375-5783. Se puede pagar mediante money orden o mediante un cheque en dÃ ³lares de un banco o de una instituciÃ ³n financiera con oficinas en Estados Unidos y pagadero a nombre del U.S. Department of Homeland Security. No utilizar abreviaciones como DHS o USDHS. Oficina a la que se envÃ a Para la extensiÃ ³n de la visa de turista existen dos direcciones a utilizar, corresponde una u otra dependiendo del mÃ ©todo de envÃ o.Ã Por correo ordinario: USCIS Dallas Lockbox U.S. Postal Service:USCISP.O. Box 660166Dallas, TX 75266 Por correo urgente o por servicio de mensajerÃ a: USCISATTN: I-5392501 S. State Highway 121 BusinessSuite 400Lewisville, TX 75067 DecisiÃ ³n de las autoridades migratorias El USCIS notificar por escrito si concede o no la peticiÃ ³n de extender la visa de turista. Por esta razÃ ³n, es fundamental que la notificaciÃ ³n llegue a su destino y no se pierda por el camino. Por lo tanto, si se cambia de domicilio es importantÃ simo notificarlo, aunque lo recomendable, si es posible, es seguir en el mismo sitio hasta que llegue la carta. La decisiÃ ³n del USCIS puede ser de tres tipos En primer lugar, se aprueba la peticiÃ ³n de extender la visa. En este caso la nueva fecha tope para poder permanecer legalmente en Estados Unidos la seÃ ±ala el nuevo I-94. Siempre y cuando la extensiÃ ³n se hubiera pedido dentro del periodo de presencia autorizada, no se incurrir en presencia ilegal mientras se espera por la aprobaciÃ ³n del USCIS, aÃ ºn cuando esta llegue con fecha posterior a la seÃ ±alada en el I-94 de ingreso al paÃ s. En segundo lugar -y esto es de gran importancia- la falta de contestaciÃ ³n por ms de 240 dÃ as. A partir de ese dÃ a se considera que la presencia del turista es ilegal. Y en tercer lugar, se niega la peticiÃ ³n. En este caso hay que salir inmediatamente de los Estados Unidos. No se dice cuntos dÃ as exactamente se tiene que salir. Pero la obligaciÃ ³n es que se salga de forma inmediata. Adems, en estos casos, hay un problema aÃ ±adido: se considera que se da una situaciÃ ³n de presencia ilegal a contar desde el dÃ a en que expirÃ ³ el I-94 cuya extensiÃ ³n ha rechazado el USCIS. Es decir, desde el punto de vista de las leyes migratorias esa persona es inadmisible lo cual tiene efectos inmediatos en la validez de laÃ visa de turista. Ã ¿Cuntas veces se puede pedir la extensiÃ ³n de la visa? La ley no dice que exista un nÃ ºmero mximo de veces. Pero sÃ el tiempo mximo que se puede permanecer en Estados Unidos con una visa de turista contando todas las extensiones aprobadas: 1 aÃ ±o. Por lo tanto no se puede encadenar extensiones pasado ese lÃ mite. Errores que se deben evitar Una creencia extendida y que es completamente equivocada es la de entender que si no se sale a tiempo pero la estancia ilegal es por pocos dÃ as pues que no pasa nada. SÃ que hay consecuencias, desde el dÃ a primero. Adems, si la estancia ilegal se prolonga por ms all de medio aÃ ±o, aplica ademsÃ el castigo de los tres o de los 10 aÃ ±os. Por otra parte, muchos turistas creen que pueden viajar a MÃ ©xico, Canad o a las Bahamas por aviÃ ³n o por tierra y luego regresar y obtener asÃ un nuevo I-94. Pero eso no es asÃ , para obtener una nueva fecha en el I-94 habrÃ a que haber viajado fuera de toda AmÃ ©rica del Norte. Y aÃ ºn viajando a otro paÃ s, debe siempre tenerse en cuenta la frecuencia de los ingresos a Estados Unidos, pues podrÃ a dar lugar a problemas al llegar al puesto de control migratorio, por tierra, mar o aeropuerto. Algunas opciones poco conocidas En casos muy concretos, es posible viajar fuera de Estados Unidos y volver a entrar con una visa expirada. Es lo que se conoce como revalidaciÃ ³n automtica. Pero est sujeta a requisitos muy estrictos.Ã TambiÃ ©n en casos muy especÃ ficos, es posible restaurar el estatus migratorio cuando se ha fallado a la hora de salir a tiempo o pedir la extensiÃ ³n de la visa a tiempo. Consejos para mantener la visa de turista Para acabar este artÃ culo, seÃ ±alar que no sÃ ³lo la presencia ilegal puede dar lugar a problemas a la hora de mantener la visa de turista. Es muy importante respetar la intenciÃ ³n de la visa: simplemente turismo. Por lo tanto si se desea casarse, hay que tener en cuenta ciertas precauciones. Si se quiere estudiar a tiempo completo, o lo que es lo mismo, ms de 19 horas, la visa que hay que solicitar es la de estudiante o, en su caso, la de intercambio. Y que por supuesto est prohibido trabajar con esta visa. Para ello hay que estar autorizado por un documento migratorio que lo permita. Trabajar sin estar autorizado es una violaciÃ ³n migratoria.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Prop 30 - Research Paper Example In November 2012, elections were conducted all over California in order to evaluate whether people were ready to increase the tax rates so that budget cuts could be prevented in the educational sector. According to the website of California Secretary of State, 54% of the voters favored taxes to be increased to finance education system. On the other hand, almost 46% of the total voteÃ¢â¬â¢s caste was in opposition to this initiative. Contextually, it should be mentioned that Jerry Brown, the governor of California had given full support to Prop 30. On the other hand, small businessmen and entrepreneurs opposed this proposition. They said that increasing the taxes would affect the businesses in the state adversely. Hence, that would be compensated by job cuts and shut down of smaller firms. Thesis Prop 30 is based on an utmost democratic approach that not only supports the freedom of expression but also takes on a combinatory political approach that ventures to adjudge popular mental ity on the mandate of free education. Particularly after the Civil War and abolition of slavery, equality has been a key area of both debate and pursuit in the American society, where social stratifications are supposed to be aligned to the merit based parameters. But what if education becomes costly? What if the economically backward children are left behind and the public schools raise their fees? Nevertheless, a just education system should be accessible to the economically backward people too. Hence, if it be necessary to increase taxes on the general public so that the schools can be financed better and broader educational outreach is harnessed, people must take a positive approach. California indeed needs educational reforms and the majority of Californians wish to see reforms. In this way, Temporary Taxes to Fund Education should be supported to provide more wealth to the educational establishments. By the means of public funding, governments can really open up the doors of w elfare economy to fulfill the popular aspirations. In the first go, this all may seem to be politically biased populist measures. But if we think a little deeper then we can accept that Californian education system has some real problems which should be solved with real solutions. Hence, Prop 30 was a move that deserved popular support. Discussion Educational disparities raise serious questions on the credibility of American Dream. Ã¢â¬Å"California leads the United States in the total number of African Americans enrolled in higher education, although the proportion of African American students enrolled in higher education continues to decline. Close to 76% of all African Americans in public elementary school graduate from high school, but only 13% go on to graduate from institutions in the California state higher education systems.Ã¢â¬ (Allen, Bonous-Hammarth, and Teranishi, 1-2) Higher education prospects in California appear to be parallel to a racially biased apartheid system . It reflects a sort of extreme socioeconomic disparity. An outstanding and reachable public higher education system augmented CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic development. But today, the lack of an equal opportunity based educational paradigm is playing a significant role to undermine the future prospects of the African American population. Therefore, educational reforms must be initiated to help California maintain its justifiable vibrancies and democratic institutions. Nevertheless, certain
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Desktop Publishing for Business - Assignment Example The sub-headings to be included, the topics that require to be covered extensively and the ones to be glossed over, have all got to be taken into consideration. DTP offers a lot more flexibility for a person while creating printed materials but the new age student still needs to grasp the importance of learning how to utilise and understand basics of design principle elements like space , texture, value, balance so that he/she can create an effective design layout. Design Principles: What is a design? A design can be said to be Ã¢â¬Å"a plan for arranging elements in such a way as to best accomplish a particular purposeÃ¢â¬ (Faimon & Weigand 2004: 13). A design is a creation of elements such as line, shape, colour, value and texture and is integrated with principles such as unity, variety, emphasis, balance and scale making it a design principle as a whole. Only when there is a proper integration of both design and principle, we can call it a successful design principle. The desig n principle can be said to be a form of communication through visual means. To communicate effectively, we have to use precise and correct language and likewise in visual communication, the designs we use will determine the efficacy of our communication. An examination of the individual components that make up the design principle in the given brochure, which include balance, white space, contrast, repetition, alignment and proximity reveals balance, in terms of design implies a distribution in visual weight of objects, colours, texture, and space. If we could arrange the designs on a linear scale, then both sides would have to be balance to make the design look and feel stable and if we arrange the design radially, then also the elements are arranged around a central point and may be similar. The rule of thirds is another interesting mode of presentation but looks to be more confusing to a layman when compared to the symmetrical and the asymmetrical mode of presentation. The white space is the empty space left between words or in margins. It is the absence of text and graphics. It can help to follow a layout easily, highlight a certain element or help rest the eyes. All the elements of white space have been very effectively portrayed in the BMW brochure and the best way to utilize it has also been communicated. Avoiding rivers of white space and claustrophobic presentation makes the point clear that a design element has to remain uncluttered to be effective and eye-catching. Contrast forms the crux to a dynamic design, which creates visual interest and enhances the organization and hierarchy of your content. Contrast involves making two or more elements very different (e.g. heading and text). The contrasts shown in the brochure proves weak and the effectiveness could have been better if bright colours were used instead of just black and white images. Black and white does create contrast but all the images look repetitive and uninteresting. Ã¢â¬Å"Repetition w orks with pattern to make the artwork seem activeÃ¢â¬ (Principles of Design 2011: 1). Whenever the elements of a design are repeated, the elements of design create symmetry and unity within the artwork. Repeating certain visual elements of the design throughout, improves visual impact, consistency, and strengthens
Friday, January 24, 2020
Catch 22 Comparison Paper Catch 22 by Joseph Heller is a complex and intricate novel. Heller uses many themes, does not have the story line in chronological order and often uses irony in his descriptions. Many of the themes can be compared to other literature. One of the themes that can be compared is fear in war. The idea is that the evils and cruelty of war can make a grown man go back into a "fetal" state. This can be seen in The Ball Turret Gunner by Randall Jarrell and can be compared to the metaphor used in chapter five of Catch 22. In this chapter Yossarian talks about the tight crawl space which led to the plexiglass bombardierÃ¢â¬â¢s compartment. This can be looked at as the passageway to fear. Every time Yossarian climbs down he is entering a womb. Yossarian is depicted as being scared and that is why he goes down in the "womb" to feel secure. There, he is nothing but a scared child in a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb wanting to come out but he canÃ¢â¬â¢t. This can also be said for the character in the Ball Turret Gunner. The first lines the speaker says that he has had no choice but to be in this position of being in the belly of the bombardiers compartment. There he too feels as if he is nothing but a small child in his mother womb. He describes his helplessness when he says that he is "six miles form earth and loosed from the dream of life". However, the speaker in Ball Turret gunner goes to a further extent when he says that after the "nightmare", and he is killed and washed out of the compartment with a hose. Another theme addressed in Catch 22 was religion. In Catch 22 the characters questioned whether or not God was real. Many points are brought out by this question. One question is if God loves us so much, why are human lives va... ... kill. So no matter how patriotic Clevingers tear filled speech was death is death and nobody wants that fate. In One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest McMurphy tries to make the outside world seem so good which is true to the reader because of the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of the evil plans that Nurse Ratchet has in store. However, the characters are not mentally ready for the outside world. They have been locked up for so long in the "prison" that they could not handle the evils presented to them by other people. Nurse Ratchet has taken away their self-confidence and they can not deal with other people criticism. In the part of the novel when McMurphy takes them on a fishing trip, it is seen how fragile they are. In the bait shop they are torn down buy the loafers there and they really loose confidence. The prison has impacted them and will leave a permanent scar mentally.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
IntroductionThe paradigm shift in the contemporary society in relation to the learning environment witnessed in the wake of a new light of advancement in technology has had all sorts of impact on various entities in the society. The forces of globalization have been viewed directly as destructive in many ways though this is still debatable as it is subjective of personal judgment.When technology fails to be used constructively or when it does not find an effective application, technology becomes detrimental to autonomy in thinking and action. This technology has seen introduction of the gadgets of science into the classrooms, study rooms and to be specific, to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ life. It has impeded the capability of self creativity in students as they leave all thinking to machines like computer and the hi-tech learning gadgets. Most people argue that modern technology has a negative impact on the socialization of students because it eliminates need for physical activity, impairs critical thinking skills, and limits face to face interaction.DiscussionLimits face to face interactionThis is not a subject one would conclude at once by leaning on one particular side. It is therefore imperative to critically look at both sides of the divide and an analyze views on the basis of zero bias. On the contrary, and in support of the argument above, we find that technology has invaded the learning environment and turned it upside down. The introduction of computers in schools, for example, has reduced the level of student- to-student interaction and in its stead placed student-to-computer interaction to rule supreme. (Glenn M. Kleiman (2000) The Digital Classroom- http://www.edletter.org/dc/kleiman.htm).This means that the students spend most of their time relating and communicating with the machines rather than face-to-face interaction of the students to each other. This later on leads to development of ethical dilemmas in the future society. In such a milieu the learne r prefers to associate with Ã¢â¬Ënon-physicalÃ¢â¬â¢ characters on TV, net or web. This leads to stereotyping behavior in students. Recent research carried out in 2001, (Seemann, E. et al-(2001). Ã Also see C. Crawford et al. 2001 and URL: http://www.nsba.org/sbot/toolkit/tiol.html), reveals that the use of computer mediated communication and technology in the learning environment has great impact in changing the lives of students in the classroom. It further indicates that through modern technology, studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior in terms of interactions with the teachers and the tutors is immensely influenced as well as that among the students themselves. This approach, the researchers argue, downplays the significance of social contact hence may lead many students to fail in developing the necessary social skills to function in the world.Impediment to Critical thinkingSecondly, the use of the modern technology in learning environment may be a substantial threat to the ability of students to develop high level of critical thinking. This means that since the use of computer aided communication will entail the fingers pressing for a click of the mouse, liberation of ideas will be thwarted and thus hinder creativity. When there is no liberation of ideas thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little or no creativity and therefore originality and subsequent development take a back seat. Because of availability of a machine with ready-to-use programs, the student will not care questioning of the present method of approach to a problem and therefore will not discover new ways and means of solving a given problem.Eliminates need for physical activityThe technology can also play quite a significant role in producing laziness in terms of reduced physical dexterity to engage in any exercise that involves exercise to the body. The importance physical exercises play to the body is of great relevance to the healthy development of a physically fit individual. The above research also reiterates th at even physical activity by students becomes a nightmare as the only involvement of the student will be the hand or fingers, the eyes together with ears- if there be any additional item on the list, it should be nothing other than maximum fixation to the screen, (Seaman, E. et al-(2001)).Opposing argumentsOn the other side of the divide lies the great relevance computer aided communication and technology based learning have in modeling individual students in the classroom and the society. Those who argue that the relevance of technology in a learning environment is absolute contend that though the technology may have some negative impacts, the positive achievements are far much superb and outweigh the negative ones.Ã This argument holds that a student needs to develop the skills referred to as the multiple intelligences (Howard Gardner, 1983).Gardner says that the use of the powerful technological enables speeded development of these intelligences. In addition, human machine int eraction enables an individual to think, communicate and deliberate on ideas through development of creativity in words, speech and writing. Most modern technology like some computer software that allows young children to and illustrate their own narratives or stories before their motor skills are fully developed enhance learning and creativity to start early in life.Even though the use of computer aided communication and the technology in the conveyance of learning information is objected by some, learners are able to interact closely with mathematical intelligences which enable them to memorize, and carry out mathematical operations in addition to thinking mathematically, analytically and logically before applying the understanding to solve problem. Through these modern systems students are able to interact with scientists exploring the depths of certain places but electronically.The students also develop high ability to understand the world they live in through what they see thus developing spatial or visual intelligence. By development of kinesthetic intelligence students are able to learn through dexterity and coordination thus developing the ability to express their feelings better thereby removing any doubts of ethical dilemmas. The students too can have musical intelligence thus be able to perform and appreciate or create music by whichever means, voice, dance or instruments. Though some scholars argue and maintain that use of the technology reduces the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization capability, others maintain that in the real sense the technology gives the student the chance to gain high levels of interpersonal intelligence thus being able to cooperatively work with others. This is done through electronic networking.RefutationThe bias that is revealed when trying to analyze the argument from one viewpoint is quite evident. Technology has been of great importance in improving the quality of education, the efficiency in acquisition of information and e ffective application of positive changes in the society and realization of the relevance of these changes to the learning environment. At the same time, it would still be unwise to refute the negative impacts of the technology to the social relations, physical activity and critical thinking of the students in their classrooms. However, the positive role played in enhancing the appreciation of technology in the learning environment cannot go without being lauded. The role for sure supersedes by far the demerits that accompany it.ConclusionTo be of maximum benefit and relevance, application of technology in the learning environment must be applied with care and consideration in order to make the learning process to be qualitatively different and attractive. As we embrace the benefits of having technology, we must also prepare to deal with its negativities. This way, the learning process in the classroom can become richer and pose less threat to the values and autonomy of every individ ual student. Otherwise it would have an impact that is not desirable whether the learning environment is home-based or institutional one.References:Seemann, E., Wilkinson, L., et al. Impact of Technology on Socialization of Student in the Classroom, 2001.Kleiman, Glenn M. The Digital Classroom- 2000. Accessed on Friday April 25, 2008 from URL:Ã http://www.edletter.org/dc/kleiman.htmCrawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Teacher Education and Information
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Ethical Decision-Making Models Decision-making in the field of psychology refers to a cognitive process that results in a selection among multiple possible solutions in a situation (Colman, 2008). Decision-making is based on available information from the environment as well as intrinsic information and existing schemas (Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp Younggren, 2011). These internal schemas, along with knowledge and personal preferences, influence the decision-making process. Ethical decision-making differs from normal decision-making in that ethical standards influence the decision maker s choice (Rogerson et al., 2011). Numerous professions and organization adhere to some form of ethical standards including business,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In level 3, the counselor makes decisions that society and laws would approve of (societal). Level 4 (individual) refers to the counselors decisions that are based on the needs of the client while at the same time adhering to laws and right and others. Leve l 5 refers to the counselorÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to make decisions based on self-chosen principles of conscience and internal ethical schemas (principles). Levels 1 and 2 are considered to be low while levels 4 and 5 are considered to have high levels of moral developments. Models of moral development have been integrated into the first models of ethical decision-making (Cottone Claus, 2000). There are several ethical decision making models including Kritchner s model, social constructivism, and organizational-based models that take into consideration organizational factors and moral intensity. One of the first models for ethical decision-making was developed in 1984 by Kritchener according to Cottone and Claus (2000). Kitchener argued that in an absence of ethical standards an individual uses personal value judgment which lead to subpar decisions. Kitchener based her model from previous model of moral development and recommended that counselors should strive to develop a deeper understanding of the implications of behaving ethically. Most decision-making models are linear and are based on rational thought (Cottone Claus,Show MoreRelatedThe Ethical Decision Making Model Essay813 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesETHICAL DECISION-MAKING MODEL Many face ethical dilemmas daily through their different professions and usually this is when issues arise, some dilemmas are simple tasks others may be very complex and some have grey areas.Ã Organizational culture, codes of conduct, rules and regulations and equal opportunity for example, play a role in a professionÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical standards.Ã When looking at society today with regard to crime.Ã Ethical standards in our justice system are extremely useful because our beliefsRead MoreThe Ethical Decision Making Model959 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbility The first attribute of the trust model is ability. Ability is defined as having the skills to accomplish a task, competency, proficiency or talent in a certain area (Liberty University, 2015). 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